The Hamouns are transboundary wetlands on the Iran-Afghan border made up of three lakes: Hamoun-e Helmand, which is entirely in Iran, Hamoun-e Sabari on the border, and Hamoun-e Puzak, almost entirely inside Afghanistan. The three lakes are linked and fed by water from the Helmand River which starts in the Hindu Kush Mountains in Afghanistan.
Heray Rud River originates in the Baba mountain range, part of the Hindu Kush system, and follows a relatively straight course to the west. After Herat, the river turns northwest, then north, forming the northern part of the border between Afghanistan and Iran. Farther north it forms the south-eastern part of the border between Iran and Turkmenistan. The Iran–Turkmenistan Friendship Dam is on the river.
Transboundary waters – the aquifers, and lake and river basins shared by two or more countries – support the lives and livelihoods of great numbers of people across the world. In an era of increasing water stress, how to manage these critical resources is vital to promoting peaceful cooperation and sustainable development.
According to UN Water depleted and degraded transboundary water supplies have the potential to result in social unrest and spark conflict within and between countries. To deal with the negative impacts of climate change combined with the demands of increasing populations and economic growth requires a supranational, integrated approach to transboundary water resource management based on legal and institutional frameworks and shared benefits and costs.
Unfortunately climate change and low precipitation levels, coupled with dam construction and not providing the downstream with their water rights have caused dryness in northeastern, eastern, and southeastern parts of Iran which have sparked protests between the two countries.Download Document