Environmental Challenges in trans-Boundary Waters, Case Study: Hamoon Hirman Wetland (Iran and Afghanistan)

The study is about the reported plight of the population that relies on the Hamoons, transboundary wetlands between Iran and Afgahnsitan, which get their water rom Helmand, River, and which faces climatic degradation. This paper presents recent conditions of Hamoon wetlands, implemented works and suggested solution for conservation and rehabilitation of Hamoons.

The study finds that reasons for the degradation may be increased occurrence of droughts, decreased discharge of the Hirmand River due to increased water use in Afghanistan, over-exploitation of natural resources by the growing local population and the introduction of exotic herbivorous fish, which may have prevented re-growth of reeds after the droughts of the mid-1980. The study further adds that Iran has paid a heavy price for protecting and rehabilitating the Hamoons, but without international support and Afghanistan’s cooperation, it is a task almost impossible to complete.

The study recommends increased cooperation from Afghanistan, as well as international support and cooperation to protect Hamoon wetland collection and accelerate its rehabilitation.

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